对于叶子颜色的变化+季节更替可以换更好的表达

2019-11-13 20:05栏目:教育资讯
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打听地球

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The Oak Tree is the king of the Western trees: it has the majestic look with its large canopy top and a straight upward-growing trunk. Oaks are deciduous, meaning their leaves bloom and wither with the whim of seasons. .

Alien life might be purple.

先从那么些你不知晓的地球冷知识开首吧~

(改1)The oak tree, the average life span of which is about 600 years, is credited to be the undisputed king of the western world which can grow to the height of more than 40 meters.

When spring comes, new leaves and new branches bud from scales on the sturdy old branches, and that announces the onset of the cycle: growing. Growing needs energy. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide and sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll in the leaves, into sugar - its own energy source. The sugar is passed down through the phloem in the trunk, to “feed” the whole tree and make all parts grow. Roots grow sideways to form a deep, broad root system, which functions to absorb water and minerals in the soil. The water and minerals then get transported up by the xylem to the leaves, where the photosynthesis process needs water as an essential input.

外星生命可能是浅豆绿的。

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改1:带头要把oak tree全体的回忆写出来,争取把种种部分的表征都包含在内。

Oak trees self pollinate, or in another word, they produce both female flower and male flowers. The seeds - the acorns, looking like Mr. Potato-head wearing an upside-down scale-skinned bowl, start to develop in those low-profile female flowers nestled among the leaves. Acorns will take one to two years to mature before they fall off the parent tree.

That's the conclusion of a new research paper that suggests that the first life on Earth might have had a lavender hue. In the?International Journal of Astrobiology, microbiologist Shiladitya DasSarma of the University of Maryland School of Medicine and postdoctoral researcher Edward Schwieterman at the University of California, Riverside, argue that before green plants started harnessing the power of the sun for energy, tiny purple organisms figured out a way to do the same.

地球不是圆的

The oak tree, the king of the western world, has the majesty look with its thick trunk and dense leaves which fall away in winter and then appear in the next spring—a cycle repeating for about 600 years.

In summer, photosynthesis is fueled up by stronger sunlight and more rapid hydraulic cycles in hot temperatures. The tree increases in height, the trunk grows thicker and greener leaves cloud the tree top.

那是黄金时代篇新探究诗歌的结论。那篇诗歌提议,地球上最先的性命可能全体薰衣草的水彩。亚拉巴马大学历史高校微型生物学家Sheila迪蒂亚·达斯萨尔马三保亚利桑那大学里弗赛德分校大学子后钻探员Edward·施维特曼在《国际天体生物学杂志》上刊载诗歌提出,在鲜黄植株初阶接纳太阳光以获取能量从前,微小的暗褐生物体就已经在这里样做了。

有的是人觉着地球是叁个圆球。事实上,其形状相像于球体,但两极是扁平的,赤道是显示的,这么些崛起是由于地球的自转产生的。那意味从风流洒脱极到另黄金年代极的测量相差大致比地球穿过赤道的直径小43海里。

The oak tree has a deep, broad root system to draw water and minerals from the soil, and transmit these nutrients from the root to the rest of the tree. Above the ground, the thick trunk covered with dark, brownish bark grows straight upward, and branches out toward the top, providing shade for travelers and animals in the heat of the day. (改2)​On each branch, leaves are spirally arranged with rounded lobes along the edges. The chlorophyll in leaves plays an important role in undertaking photosynthesis, by which the oak tree can obtain energy from the sunlight and turn water and carbon dioxide into food. (改3)In autumn, the oak tree stops producing this kind of substance, and the leaves then turn orange or bronze, after which they fall away and are replaced by new leaves in the next cycle.

That lush blossom fades as the fall sneaks in: the leaves loses its green since they stop making chlorophyll in autumn, but puts on more red, orange and bronze thanks to the carotenoids and anthocyanins produced in them. Winter will see the whole tree falls asleep with bare branches - waiting for life to revive in the next spring. Oak Trees can live through some 600 such annual cycles.

Alien life could be thriving in the same way, DasSarma said.

Many people tend to think that the Earth is a sphere. In fact, its shape is similar to a sphere, but where the poles are flattened and the equator bulges. This bulge is due to our planet's rotation. This means that the measurement from pole to pole is about 43 km less than the diameter of Earth across the equator.

改2:光合效应的演说非常不足明晰,简练

达斯萨尔马说,外星生命也许会以平等的措施健康地成长。

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On each branch, lobed leaves are spirally arranged where photosynthesis converts carbon dioxides and sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll into food, which is then passed down to the rest of the tree.

"Astronomers have discovered thousands of new extrasolar planets recently and are developing the capacity to see surface biosignatures" in the light reflected from these planets, he told Live Science. There are already ways to detect green life from space, he said, but scientists might need to start looking for purple, too.?

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改3:对于叶子颜色的扭转+季节更迭能够换更好的说明格局

他报告野趣科学网址说,“天国学家近年来发觉了数千颗新的太阳系外行星,况且正在开辟从那个行星反射出的光线中观测表素不相识物特征的工夫”。他说,物教育学家已经有办法探空中的北京蓝生命,但或许他们还须要初阶寻找茜红的性命。

亚得里亚海是陆地的最低点

The oak tree stops producing chlorophyll in autumn, so the leaves loses its green but puts on more red, orange and bronze. Winter will see the whole tree falls asleep with bare branches—waiting for life to revive in the next spring.

天蓝的地球

陆地上的最低点相对轻便达到,即约旦、以色列国和平左券旦河西岸里面包车型地铁里海。这几个异常的咸湖的外界低杨世元平面1388英尺。

Oak trees start blooming when they reach the age of 20. The formation of blooms depends on weather conditions and different tree species. Roughly speaking, white oaks bloom in March, two weeks earlier than red oaks, and they are all in full blossom in April. Oak trees bear both male and female flowers, which means they self-pollinate. (改4)The male flowers hanging in clusters produce pollen, while inconspicuous female flowers hidden among twisted branches produce seed—a small oval nut called acorn. The acorn usually contains a hard seed, enclosed in a tough, leathery shell, and borne in a cup-shaped carpel. It usually takes 1 to 2 years for acorns to mature before dropping from the tree, depending on the climate.

The idea that the early Earth was purple is not new, DasSarma and his colleagues advanced the theory in 2007. The thinking goes like this: Plants and photosynthesizing algae use chlorophyll to absorb energy from the sun, but they don't absorb green light. That's odd, because green light is energy-rich. Perhaps, DasSarma and his colleagues reasoned, something else was already using that part of the spectrum when chlorophyll photosynthesizers evolved.

The lowest point on land is relatively accessible. It's the Dead Sea between Jordan, Israel and the West Bank. The surface of this super-salty lake is 1,388 feet below sea level.

改4:对于acorn形成以致成熟的历程的表达远远不足显然,简练

有关中期地球是米黄的思索并不例外,达斯萨尔三保太监她的同事们在二〇〇六年就提议了那一假如。这种主见是那样的:植物和展开光合效应的海藻利用叶绿素吸取来自太阳的能量,但它们并不采用绿光。那很奇异,因为绿光满含能量。达斯萨尔马三保他的同事们估摸,只怕,在叶绿素光合效应生物衍生和变化现身的时候,某种使用那某个光谱的其余海洋生物已经存在了。

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The male flowers hanging in clusters produce pollen, and the seeds—the acorns start to develop in those inconspicuous female flowers hidden among twisted branches. Acorns usually take one to two years to mature before dropping from the tree, which depends on the climate.

That "something else" would be simple organisms that captured solar energy with a molecule called retinal. Retinal pigments absorb green light best. They're not as efficient as chlorophylls in capturing solar energy, but they are simpler, the researchers wrote in their new paper.

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这种“其他海洋生物”也许是经过黄金年代种被称之为视黄醛的分子捕获太阳热辐射能量的简短生物体。视黄醛色素能够最大程度地接过绿光。研商人口在新发布的故事集中写道,视黄醛色素在获得太阳热辐射能量时的功能不比叶绿素,但它们进一层简单。

地球曾经是森林绿的

Retinal light-harvesting is still widespread today among bacteria and the single-celled organisms called Archaea. These purple organisms have been discovered everywhere from the oceans to the Antarctic Dry Valley to the surfaces of leaves, Schwieterman told Live Science. Retinal pigments are also found in the visual system of more complex animals.

俄勒冈高校的微型生物遗传学家Shil DasSarma感到,前几天地球上的人命是海洋蓝的,但在最早恐怕是浅紫蓝的。他说,南齐的原生生物恐怕应用了叶绿素以外的分子来行使太阳光线,而正是这种分子授予了生物水晶色的色彩。

以视黄醛收罗光能的方式前不久在细菌和被可以称作“古细菌”的单细胞生物体中依然十二分科学普及。施Witt曼告诉U.S.A.趣味科学网址说,从海洋到南极洲干谷再到植物叶子表面,随处都意识过这种橄榄绿生物体。视黄醛色素也存在于相比较复杂的动物视觉系统中。

It used to be purple … well, life on early Earth may have been just as purple as it is green today, suspects Shil DasSarma, a microbial geneticist at the University of Maryland. Ancient microbes, he said, might have used a molecule other than chlorophyll to harness the sun's rays, one that gave the organisms a violet hue, he suggests.

The appearance of the pigments across many living organisms hints that they may have evolved very early on, in ancestors common to many branches of the tree of life, the researchers wrote. There is even some evidence that modern purple-pigmented salt-loving organisms called halophiles might be related to some of the earliest life on Earth, which thrived around methane vents in the ocean, Schwieterman said.

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研究职员写道,那么些色素在不菲海洋生物生命个体中的现身,暗意它们恐怕在很早的时候就在生命之树众多拨出所共有的祖先体内变成了升高。施Witt曼说,以至有一对证据表明,被称作“嗜盐菌”的现代黑灰喜盐微型生物只怕与地球上一点最初的人命方式有关,这一个生命已经在海洋中的辛烷喷口相近旺盛生长。

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雪青的外星人

地球的大气层能拉开到风姿罗曼蒂克万英里

Regardless of whether the first life on Earth was purple, it's clear that lavender life suits some organisms just fine, Schwieterman and DasSarma argue in their new paper. That means that alien life could be using the same strategy. And if alien life is using retinal pigments to capture energy, astrobiologists will find them only by looking for particular light signatures, they wrote.

地球的大气层在离开地球表面50英里以内是最厚的,但它实在达到了1万海里。它由对流层、平流层、中间层、热层和外围五层组成。日常,空气压力和密度会趁机中度的上涨而日渐下落。

施Witt曼和达斯萨尔马在他们的新散文中提出,不管地球上最初的人命是或不是呈孔雀蓝,显著薰衣草色的生命十三分切合某个生命个体。那表示外星生命可能在使用同风姿浪漫的办法。他们写道,假如外星生命正在使用视黄醛色素捕获能量,那么大自然生物学家将唯有由此查找特定的玻璃体出血标志技术找到它们。

Earth's atmosphere is thickest within the first 50 km from the surface or so, but it actually reaches out to about 10,000 km into space. It is made up of five main layers – the Troposphere, the Stratosphere, the Mesosphere, the Thermosphere, and the Exosphere. As a rule, air pressure and density decrease the higher one goes into the atmosphere and the farther one is from the surface.

Chlorophyll, Schwieterman said, absorbs mostly red and blue light. But the spectrum reflected from a plant-covered planet displays what astrobiologists call a "vegetation red edge." This "red edge" is a sudden change in the reflection of light at the near-infrared part of the spectrum, where plants suddenly stop absorbing red wavelengths and start reflecting them away.

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施Witt曼说,叶绿素首要接收红光和蓝光。但从生龙活虎颗覆盖着植物的行星上反光过来的光谱将展现天体生物学家所说的“植被红边”。这种“红边”是光谱中临近红外区域的亮光反射的赫然调换,植物会冷不丁停下选用位于该区域的革命波长光并伊始将它们反射出去。

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Retinal-based photosynthesizers, on the other hand, have a "green edge," Schwieterman said. They absorb light up to the green portion of the spectrum, and then start reflecting longer wavelengths away.

地球自转一周不供给24钟头

施Witt曼说,另一面,基于视黄醛的光合生物体具有“绿边”。它们收到光谱铁淡紫白区域以下的光辉,然后初始反射波长越来越长的光。

实在,地球自转七日须求23钟头56分4秒,天文学家称之为主序星日。但还要,地球绕太阳星君转。每天,太阳与背景白矮星之间的移动幅度约为1°——与天空中月球的大大小小大概。由于地球也绕着阳光转,假如把来自太阳的小活动加起来,总共是24时辰,那就是所谓的太阳日。太阳日是日光三番三次两回经过同一子午线的时日间隔。

Astrobiologists have long been intrigued by the possibility of detecting extraterrestrial life by detecting the "red edge," Schwieterman said, but they may need to consider searching for the "green edge," too.

It actually takes 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds for the Earth to rotate once completely on its axis, which astronomers refer to as a Sidereal Day. But the Earth orbits around the Sun. Every day, the Sun moves compared to the background stars by about 1° – about the size of the Moon in the sky. And so, if you add up that little motion from the Sun that we see because the Earth is orbiting around it, as well as the rotation on its axis, you get a total of 24 hours.This is what is known as a Solar Day, which – contrary to a Sidereal Day – is the amount of time it takes the Sun to return to the same place in the sky.

施Witt曼说,天体生物学家长久以来一贯痴迷于通过探测“红边”来开掘外星生命的可能,但大概她们也需求思虑搜索“绿边”。

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"If these organisms were present in sufficient densities on an exoplanet, those reflection properties would be imprinted on that planet's reflected light spectrum," he said.

{"type":1,"value":"南极洲是叁个十二万分的大陆

她说:“假如那一个生物以十足的密度存在于某些外星行星上,那么这个反射性情就能记录在该行星的反光光谱上。”

南极陆地是贰个极端之处,纵然它只是第中国共产党第五次全国代表大会大陆,但其南一点都不小陆冰面覆盖富含了地球上五分四的淡水和九成的冰。也许你不知情,我们往往认为南极洲是沙漠,其内陆地区一年一度的降雨量只有2英寸。

The southern continent is a place of extremes, with the Antarctic ice cap containing some 70 percent of Earth's fresh water and about 90 percent of its ice, even though it is only the fifth largest continent. Did you know Antarctica is actually considered a desert? Inner regions get just 2 inches (50 millimeters) of precipitation a year (typically as snow, of course).

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珊瑚礁是最宏大的生物体协会

珊瑚礁是地球上物种生存密度最高的生态系统,能够与雨林相媲美。美利坚合众国国度海洋和大量管理局表示,尽管珊瑚礁是由渺小的珊瑚虫组成,但它们是地球上最宏大的海洋生物构造——一个由互相沟通的生命个体组成的群体——有个别以至能够从高空中观察。

Coral reefs support the most species per unit area of any of the planet's ecosystems, rivaling rain forests. And while they are made up of tiny coral polyps, together coral reefs are the largest living structures on Earth — a community of connected organisms — with some visible even from space, according to NOAA.

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